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Title :我が国におけるショウガ属蔬菜の育種に関する研究
Title alternative :Studies on the breeding of Zingiber species used as condiment vegetables in Japan
Authors :安谷屋, 信一
Authors alternative :Adaniya, Shinichi
Issue Date :Mar-1996
Abstract :平成5年度~平成7年度科学研究費補助金(一般研究(C))研究成果報告書
研究概要:1.ミョウガの育種 1)実生系統の形態的特性および選抜 1989年および1990年に,16時間日長,約20℃および高湿度条件下で受粉することによって多くの実生(系統)を得た.これらの実生系統のうち,染色体数2n=49~60を有する系統の形態変異を調査した.供試した実生系統の多くは,親系統より小型であった.しかし,3実生系統は,親系統より多くの花穂を生産した.以上の結果より,ミョウガの育種は,種子繁殖育種によって進展すると結論付けた. 2)ミョウガのin vitro増殖通常の茎頂培養法によって不定芽の分化を促すことは困難であった.しかし,茎頂部を垂直に2分割し,頂芽を物理的に破壊した後,8~12ppmBA添加の寒天培地で培養することにより,多くの不定芽を有する培養体(多芽体)を得ることができた.これらの多芽体を細断し,同様なBA濃度の寒天培地で培養することにより,多芽体のみの増殖が可能となった.増殖した多芽体を1ppm BA添加の液体培地で振とう培養することにより,多くの小植物体を得ることができた. 2.ショウガの育種 1)4倍性ショウガの花粉稔性 4倍性ショウガ系統('金時4X','三州4X','フィリピン4X')の花粉稔性(27.3〜74.2%)は,2倍性系統のそれら(0.3~6.2%) より著しく向上した. 2)4倍性ショウガにおける受粉環境 4倍性系統の最適花粉発芽温度は14~23℃で,花柱内花粉菅伸長も17℃で最も優れた.花粉発芽および花柱内花粉菅伸長は,飽和湿度条件下で良好であった.これらの結果から,4倍性ショウガの受粉環境は,約17℃,飽和湿度条件下であると推察された.このような環境下における結実については検討中である.
研究概要:Zingiber mioga Roscoe and Z.offcinale Roscoe are sterile crops. In the studies, possibilities in expanding their genetic variations through seed propagation were discussed. 1. Breeding of Zingiber mioga 1) Selection of selfed lines based on morphological characters One hundred-six selfed lines of the first generation of Z.mioga were raised during 1988 to 1989. From these lines, 29 selfed lines with different number of chromosomes (2n=49-60) were randomly selected together with a parental line and used for analyzing their morphological variations by multivariate analyzes.The analyzes showed that almost all of the selfed lines were smaller than the parent, but three strains among them produced more spikes than the parent. These results show that the breeding of Z.mioga can be improved by selecting desirable genotypes through seed propagation. 2) In vitro mass propagation of Zingiber mioga It was difficult to induce adventitious buds through the conventional shoot apex culture. Multiple shoots were however induced by vertically dividing shoot apex into two pieces and culturing them on agar medium containing 8 or 12 ppm BA.These multiple shoots were continuously propagated by dividing further into small pieces and culturing them on agar medium with the same BA concentrations. Many plantlets could be obtained by shaking the small pieces of multiple shoots in liquid medium with 1 ppm BA. 2. Breeding of Zingiber officinale 1) Pollen fertility of tetraploid ginger Pollen fertilities(27.3-74.2%)of tetraploid ginger ( 'Kintoki-4x' , 'Sanshu-4x' , 'Philippine-4x' ) were significantly higher than those(0.3-6.2%)of their original diploid cultivars. 2) Environment for pollination of tetraploid ginger The optimum temperature for pollen germination of the tetraploid ginger ranged from 14゚C to 23゚C,and pollen tubes in styles were also well grown at 17゚C.These results suggest that the optimum environment for pollination of the tetraploid ginger is at 17゚C and under saturated humidity. Seed setting under the environment is now under investigation.
Type Local :研究報告書
Publisher :安谷屋信一
URI :http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/16227
Appears in Collections:Research Report (Faculty of Agriculture)

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