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Title :細胞キメラ利用による栄養繁殖性ネギ類の育種に関する研究
Title alternative :The breeding of Allium species by using their cytochimeras
Authors :安谷屋, 信一
野瀬, 昭博
Authors alternative :Adaniya, Shinichi
Nose, Akihiro
Issue Date :Mar-1993
Abstract :平成2年度~平成3年度科学研究費補助金(一般研究(C))研究成果報告書
研究概要:本研究の目的は,細胞キメラ利用によるワケギの育種の可能性を検討することである.ワケギ及びネギの細胞キメラ(4-2-2,2-4-4)及び倍数体(2倍体,4倍体)を植物材料とし,以下の事項について検討した.1)細胞当たりの仁の数による倍数性検定法,2)細胞キメラ体の増殖とキメラ性の安定性,3)気孔特性,4)生育特性,5)光合成特性. 1.ネギの細胞キメラ体及び倍数体では,ネギのL1及びL2の倍数性は,それぞれ孔辺細胞及び葉肉細胞当たりの仁の最大数で検定できた.ワケギのL1及び L2の倍数性も,それぞれ孔辺細胞及び葉肉細胞当たりの仁の最大数または最頻値によって決定できた. 2.コルヒチン処理当代のキメラ性は,圃場条件下での増殖時に激しく変化した.しかし,育成後3年を経過した4-2-2及び2-4-4のキメラ体は安定的であった.0.1~1.0ppm BA+0.5ppm NAA添加の寒天培地で,キメラ性は大きく変化した.しかし,0~0.125ppm BA添加培地で,キメラ性の変化はなかった. 3.4-2-2及び4倍体は,2倍体及び2-4-4より有意に低い気孔密度と大きい気孔を有していた.4倍体及び4-2-2の単位葉面積当たりの気孔面積は,2倍体及び2-4-4より大きかった. 4.秋季には2-4-4の収量が高く,冬季には4-2-2の収量が増加した. 5.圃場条件下で,4倍体及び4-2-2の気孔伝導度,蒸散速度及び光合成速度は,2倍体及び2-4-4より高くな高くなった. 以上の結果より,秋季における2-4-4の多収性は,高い耐乾性によるものであり,また冬季における4-2-2の多収性は,高い光合成能力によってもたらされたものと推察される.したがって,ワケギの育種は,細胞キメラを利用することによって促進するであろう.
研究概要:The purpose of this studies is to define a possibility of improving the phenotype of Allium wakegi Araki by using its cytochimeras. The cytochimeras (4-2-2; 2-4-4) and the polyploids (2-2-2; 4-4-4) of A.wakegi and/or those of A. fistulosum L. were used for the studies, and the following subjects were investigated: 1) a method for analyzing chimerisum by the number of nucleoli per cell; 2) cytochimeral stability during propagation; 3) stomata and 4) growth characteristics; and 5) photosynthetic capability. 1. In the polyploids and cytochimeras of A. fistulosum, the ploidies of L1 and L2 could be easily identified by the maximum number of nucleoli per epidermal and mesophyll cell, respectively. While, in those plants of A. wakegi, ploidies in the layers could be also determined by the maximum number or a modal number of nucleoli per epidermal and mesophyll cell. 2. The first generation of colchicine treated plants frequently varied with their chimeral nature during in vivo propagation, whereas the cytochimeras cultivated in vivo for three years after the treatment were stable for their chimerisum. On the medium containing 0.1 - 1.0 ppm BA and 0.5 ppm NAA, the polyploids and the cytochimeras drastically changed their chimerisum during in vitro propagation, but did not on the medium containing a range of 0 - 0.125 ppm BA. 3. The 4-2-2 and 4-4-4 plants had lower stomatal density and larger sized stomata than the 2-2-2 and the 2-4-4. Total stomatal pore area/mm2, which was obtained by multiplying stomatal density by stomatal size, was larger in the 4-4-4 and the 4-2-2 than in the 2-2-2 and the 2-4-4. 4. The 2-4-4 showed the highest yield under warm autumn conditions, while the 4-2-2 achieved the highest productivity under cool winter conditions. 5. Under the cool winter conditions, a stomatal conductance, a transpiration rate and a photosynthetic rate were higher in the 4-4-4 and the 4-2-2 than in the 2-2-2 and the 2-4-4. From the above results, it is suggested that the highest productivity of the 2-4-4 under the warm conditions is attributed to its higher draft tolerance, and that the highest yield of the 4-2-2 under the cool conditions is due to its higher photosynthetic capacity under the cool conditions. The breeding of A. wakegi is, therefore, most likely activated by the use of the cytochimeras.
Type Local :研究報告書
Publisher :安谷屋信一
URI :http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/16287
Appears in Collections:Research Report (Faculty of Agriculture)

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