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No.57 (2010/12) >

 
Title :Tree Growing Methods: Revised Japanese and English Translations of Jumoku Hashoku Houhou (樹木播植方法)
Authors :Nakama, Yuei
Purves, John Michael
Authors alternative :仲間, 勇栄
パーヴェス, ジョン・マイケル
Issue Date :Dec-2010
Abstract :The forest administration reforms carried out during the Ryukyu Kingdom era from the 1730's to 1750's were spearheaded by Sai On and included the dividing up of forest supervision responsibilities, the preparation of various forest-related laws and the effective dissemination of forestry techniques. 'Tree Growing Methods' was one of the important documents promulgated during this period and it has four main aspects. The first is that it outlines in detail growing methods for a range of tree types, the main ones being the Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), Tung (Vernicia fordii), Ryukyu Pine (Pinus luchuensis), Okinawa Urajirogashi (Quercus miyagii), Itajii (Castanopsis sieboldii), Isunoki (Distylium racemosum), Inumaki (Podocarpus macrophyllus), Iju (Schima wallichii ssp.liukiuensis) and Mokkoku (Ternstroemia gymnanthera). In terms of cultivating Cedar cuttings, the two methods employed are using slips (afforestation through direct cutting-planting) or seedlings (grown in nursery beds). In terms of where to plant Cedar cuttings, the best place is a wide area of land where the soil is deep and where embraced protection is good. Tung trees are planted by direct seeding. A few years later, in order to produce plenty of fruit, shoots from the top of the tree are picked. Ryukyu Pine afforestation is carried out by direct seeding, as is also the case with Urajirogashi, Hajii, Isunoki, and the like. Inumaki, Mokkoku and Iju forests are grown by planting seedlings cultivated in nursery beds. The second aspect concerns the growth of bamboo groves. In the case that a grove has begun to deteriorate, if the bamboo is cut it at regular intervals and entangled whisker roots removed the area will regenerate. In order to discern whether the bamboo is of the right age for use, every year mark the stem with a simple cut. A third aspect relates to the planting of trees to reinvigorate forest areas that have fallen into decline. In an expanse of Susuki (Miscanthus sinensis) grass clearings that are approximately five times the height of the surrounding grass in diameter are opened up and into these prepared clearings trees are planted. This five-fold numerical value is entirely consistent with current windbreak theories in terms of the most effective maximum windbreak distance. Because these cleared areas when viewed from a distance resemble the scales of a fish this planting method is known as the 'Fish-scale Pattern'. This forest planting method is thought to be of Chinese origin, based on the concept of qi in Feng Shui, and is a technique found nowhere other than in Hyukyu. The fourth aspect concerns the keyword 'embraced protection', which is a critical concept in the context of these forest growing techniques. 'Embraced protection' is a method of preventing the dissipation of qi by the winds. To these ends, mountain topography is utilized, and in the case that the area is topographically disadvantageous the 'embraced protection' environment can be corrected with forest planting techniques. This is a way of coping with wind damage in a small island environment, and is thought to be something that developed independently in Ryukyu. From the above we can see that from the 1730's to 1750's unique forest cultivation techniques that were adapted to the natural environment of Ryukyu had already been established.
琉球王朝時代の林政改革は1730年代~50年代にかけて、蔡温らの主導で進められ、この時期に林野の管理区分、森林関連法の整備、林業技術の普及・啓発が行われている。「樹木播植方法」は、この様な時期に公布されたもので、その特徴は大きく分けて4つある。1つは有用樹種の育林方法である。主な樹種はスギ、シナアブラギリ、リュウキュウマツ、オキナワウラジロガシ、イタジイ、イスノキ、イヌマキ、イジュ、モッコクなどである。スギ苗の養成には、挿し木(直挿し造林用)と実生(苗床で育てる)の2つがある。スギ苗を植え付ける場所は、抱護が揃い、土地が広く深い所がよい。シナアブラギリは林地に直播きする。数年後、実付を多くするため、梢の芽を摘む。リュウキュウマツの造林は林地に直播きで行う。オキナワウラジロガシ・イタジイ・イスノキなどは林地に直播きする。イヌマキ・モッコク・イジュなどは苗床で実生苗を育てから林地に植えつける。2つは竹林の育て方である。衰退した竹林は、一定間隔に切り開き、根髭を掘り取り、再生させる。竹の利用年を考えて、毎年、幹に印を付けて年齢を判別する。3つは荒廃した原野の育林法である。ススキの原野では、ススキの高さの約5倍の広さに開き、そこを整地して、樹木を植え付ける。この5倍の数値は、現在の防風理論の最大防風効果距離と一致する。開地した場所の景観が魚の鱗状に見えることから、これを「魚鱗形」と称している。この育林法は、中国由来の風水思想の気の理論を応用したもので、他の地域では見られない琉球独自の技術である。4つはこれらの育林技術の中で、重要なキーワードとして「抱護」の概念があげられる。「抱護」は風による気の散逸を防ぐ方法である。そのために地形を利用し、地形に欠陥がある場合には、植林の手法で「抱護」の環境を補正する。これは島嶼環境下における風害への対処法として、琉球で独自に発展したものと考えられる。以上ことから、18世紀の30年代から50年代には、すでに琉球の自然環境に適応した独自の育林技術が確立されていたことがわかる。
Type Local :紀要論文
ISSN :0370-4246
Publisher :琉球大学農学部
URI :http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/19155
Citation :琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus no.57 p.1 -15
Appears in Collections:No.57 (2010/12)

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