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No.57 (2010/12) >

Title :Tree Growing Methods: Revised Japanese and English Translations of Jumoku Hashoku Houhou (樹木播植方法)
Authors :Nakama, Yuei
Purves, John Michael
Authors alternative :仲間, 勇栄
パーヴェス, ジョン・マイケル
Issue Date :Dec-2010
Abstract :The forest administration reforms carried out during the Ryukyu Kingdom era from the 1730's to 1750's were spearheaded by Sai On and included the dividing up of forest supervision responsibilities, the preparation of various forest-related laws and the effective dissemination of forestry techniques. 'Tree Growing Methods' was one of the important documents promulgated during this period and it has four main aspects. The first is that it outlines in detail growing methods for a range of tree types, the main ones being the Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), Tung (Vernicia fordii), Ryukyu Pine (Pinus luchuensis), Okinawa Urajirogashi (Quercus miyagii), Itajii (Castanopsis sieboldii), Isunoki (Distylium racemosum), Inumaki (Podocarpus macrophyllus), Iju (Schima wallichii ssp.liukiuensis) and Mokkoku (Ternstroemia gymnanthera). In terms of cultivating Cedar cuttings, the two methods employed are using slips (afforestation through direct cutting-planting) or seedlings (grown in nursery beds). In terms of where to plant Cedar cuttings, the best place is a wide area of land where the soil is deep and where embraced protection is good. Tung trees are planted by direct seeding. A few years later, in order to produce plenty of fruit, shoots from the top of the tree are picked. Ryukyu Pine afforestation is carried out by direct seeding, as is also the case with Urajirogashi, Hajii, Isunoki, and the like. Inumaki, Mokkoku and Iju forests are grown by planting seedlings cultivated in nursery beds. The second aspect concerns the growth of bamboo groves. In the case that a grove has begun to deteriorate, if the bamboo is cut it at regular intervals and entangled whisker roots removed the area will regenerate. In order to discern whether the bamboo is of the right age for use, every year mark the stem with a simple cut. A third aspect relates to the planting of trees to reinvigorate forest areas that have fallen into decline. In an expanse of Susuki (Miscanthus sinensis) grass clearings that are approximately five times the height of the surrounding grass in diameter are opened up and into these prepared clearings trees are planted. This five-fold numerical value is entirely consistent with current windbreak theories in terms of the most effective maximum windbreak distance. Because these cleared areas when viewed from a distance resemble the scales of a fish this planting method is known as the 'Fish-scale Pattern'. This forest planting method is thought to be of Chinese origin, based on the concept of qi in Feng Shui, and is a technique found nowhere other than in Hyukyu. The fourth aspect concerns the keyword 'embraced protection', which is a critical concept in the context of these forest growing techniques. 'Embraced protection' is a method of preventing the dissipation of qi by the winds. To these ends, mountain topography is utilized, and in the case that the area is topographically disadvantageous the 'embraced protection' environment can be corrected with forest planting techniques. This is a way of coping with wind damage in a small island environment, and is thought to be something that developed independently in Ryukyu. From the above we can see that from the 1730's to 1750's unique forest cultivation techniques that were adapted to the natural environment of Ryukyu had already been established.
Type Local :紀要論文
ISSN :0370-4246
Publisher :琉球大学農学部
URI :http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/19155
Citation :琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus no.57 p.1 -15
Appears in Collections:No.57 (2010/12)

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