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No.3 (1959/6) >

 
Title :沖縄児童の測定知能の発達的考察
Title alternative :A developmental view of measured intelligence of Okinawan school children
Authors :東江, 康治
Authors alternative :Agarie, Yasuharu
Issue Date :Jun-1959
Abstract :吾々は沖縄児童の測定知能の発達的推移について次のような諸仮説をたて,その検証を行った。(1)沖縄児童の知能は日本本土で標準化きれた検査によって測定された場合,検査の模準よりも低い。両者の差は特に小学校の低学年においては著しく,学年が上級に進むに従って漸次小さくなる。(2)沖縄児童の測定知能は言語式検査による場合よりも非言語式検査による場合に高く,両検査の差は学年が上級に進むに従って漸次小さくなる。(3)測定知能において田園児童は町の児童よりも低く,両者の差は学年が上級に進むに従って漸次大きくなる。  上記の諸仮説を検証するために,吾々はまず沖縄島の小学校を町の学校と田園の学校の二つのカテゴリーに分類し,前者から4校,後者から9校をそれぞれの標本校として選抜した。選ばれた標本校の3年から6年までの児童のうちから,町の標本として1,416人,田園児童の標本として1,605人を選んだ。両標本の比率を両カテゴリーの児童総数の比に等しくし,両者を総合して沖耗島全体の標本とすることにした。標本児童のうち3年を除き他は各学年とも二分して,一群に「新制田中A式知能検査」他の一群に「新制田中B式知能検査」を実施した3年はA式検査の適用範囲に入っていないためにB式検査のみを実施した。  調査によって得られたデータは,沖縄児童の測定知能に関する吾々の諸仮説を全面的に,あるいは少くとも部分的に支持している。ただ一つの例外は,町の児童と田園児童の差が吾々の予想に反し,比較的に恒常的であるということである。町の児童と田園児童の差が漸次大きくなるという吾々の予想は,田園児童の知的発達に孤立集団の特徴である age decrement が観察されるだろうという予想に根拠をおくものであったが,この調査の結果から判断すると,沖縄の田園児童(吾々の定義による)には孤立集団的な性格の現れである age decrementが認められないことになる。  調査の結果についての考察は,吾々の仮説の背景になっている沖縄の文化,社会的特殊性,特に方言と共通語による児童の言語生活の二重性,沖縄社会の田園的性格及びその文化的レベル,ならびに沖縄の辺地性の面からなされた。
This study was executed in an attempt to test the following hypothses with respect to the developmental changes of measured intelligence of Okinawan school children. (1) The school children in Okinawa would perform below the norms on intelligence tests standardized in Japan proper. The difference between the test norms and test performance of Okinawan school children would beg reater in lower grades than in upper. (2) The intelligence test performance of Okinawan school children would be higher on nonverbal tests than on verbal. The difference between verbal and nonverbal test performances would be greater in lower grades than in upper. (3) The intelligence test performance of rural children would be lower than that of urban children. The difference between urban and rural children would be smaller in lower grades than in upper.  In order to obtain the sample for this study, all elementary schools in Okinawa were clssified according to the general cultural background of each school into town-school and rural-school groups. Four town schools and nine rural schools were selected from each category of schools as their respective samples. Three thausanp and twenty-one children in grades 3 through 6 were drawn from these 13 schools. The town-rural proportion of the sample children was kept constant with thepopulation ratio of the children in the two categories of schools. The combined samples of each grade of the two categories were regarded as the sample for the entire children in corresponding grade of Okinawa. Approximately one half of the children in each grade (third grade excepted) were given the New Tanaka A-Type Intelligence Test which is predominantly verbal, and the other half, the New Tanaka B·Type Intelligence Test which is nonverbal. The third grade children were given only the latter because the former does not apply to them. The data thus collected support the forementioned hypotheses either fully or at least in part. The only exception to this is that the difference between the twon and ruaral samples remains relatively constant rather than becoming gradually larger asexpected. Our hypothesis that the difference between the twon and rural children becomes gradually larger as the grade level advances was based on an assumption that the rural children of Okinawa would show the age decrement lit This paper is based on the writer's MA thesis submitted to the Graduate college of the State University of Iowa in August, 1958. The writer wishes to express his appreciation to Professor James B. Stroud who assisted him in preparing his thesis. which is a characteristic of the intellectual devolopment of children in isolated goups. The findings of this study were discussed from the points of view which comprise the background for our hypothses. They include the bilingualism of a typical Okinawan school children, the rural characteristics of a typical community in Okinawa, and tne isolation of Okinawa, especially in the rural areas, from theoutside.
Type Local :紀要論文
ISSN :0485-7801
Publisher :琉球大学教育学部
URI :http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/19269
Citation :研究集録 no.4 p.11 -29
Appears in Collections:No.3 (1959/6)

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