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No.5 (1961/12) >

 
Title :生活年令による学級の等質化に関する研究(1) - 生活年令と学業成績について -
Title alternative :Studies on homogeneous grouping of the class room according to chronological age in months (I)
Authors :与那嶺, 松助
東江, 康治
Authors alternative :Yonamine, Matsusuke
Agarie, Yasuharu
Issue Date :Dec-1961
Abstract :個人差の問題は学校教育が当面する大きな課題の一つである.本研究はこの間題を児童生徒の生活年令の見地から検討しようとするものである.現代の学校における学級は,同一年令の児童生徒をもって編成することを原則とする.しかし同一年令といっても最年長児と最年少児の間には1年の年令差があり,この年令差はとくに小学校の低学年においては大きな意義をもつものと考えられる.本研究は,学級編成に当って年令差を考慮するか香かによって,児童の学力,知能,およびパーソナリティ-にいかなる差が生ずるかを,実験的に凍えることを目的とする.本報告はその第1報として,第1学年において学級を生活年令で等質化した等質編成群と,年令差を考慮しない普通編成群とを対象として,両群の第1学年から第3学年までの学業成績を通して,年令差の影響とその推移,等質編成の効果とその永続性等について考察した.次は本報告の主な発見である. 1)普通編成群ではCAと学業成績の間に蹟極的な相関が認められる.この年令差の学業成績への影響は上級に進むにつれて漸次小さくなる傾向を示すが,第3学年でもなお有意な影響が認められる. 2)CA と学業成績の相関ならびに年長群一年少群の差において,等質編成群は普通編成群より小さい値を示しているが,両群の差は漸次小さくなり,第3学年では両群の差は殆んど認められない.等質編成群の第1学年においてCAと学業成績は殆んど無相関に近い.これは当学年がCAによって等質化されているので当然のことといえる.第1学年における等質編成の効果およびその永続性については,本報告の資料から結論的なことはいえなかった. 3)年令差の影響は一般教科と技能教科の上にほは同程度に反映することが認められた・恐らくただ一つの例外は,普通編成群の第1学年におけるCAと保健体育の成績との相関であろう.両者の相関は.808の高い係数を示し,普通編成学級の第1学年において年令差がいかに大きく影啓するかを物語っている. なお,将来に残されたいくつかの問題点が指摘された.
The problem of individual difference is one of the major problems that confront our schools. Children vary from each other in many respects. Among them are chronological age (CA) and its concomitants. In this country children reaching the age of 6 are admitted to the elementary school once a year. The class rooms are to a certain degree homogeneous with respect to CA since they consist of children of the same age. There is, however. a difference of one full year between the oldest and the youngest children in a room. This age difference is assumed, especially in lower grades, to have a considerable weight. The present study is intended to ascertain empirically if there are differences brought about in children's grade points, scores on achievement and intelligence tests, and personality variables resulting from whether or not the age difference in months is taken into account in class room organization. In this report, the first in a series, we observed (1) the influence of the age difference upon the grade point average (GPA) and the change of the influence through the years, (2) the difference in the influence of the age difference upon GPA between academic and non-academic subjects, and (3) the effect of homogeneous grouping and its permanencyupon GPA. These observation were based on the school grades of the first three years of the elementary school of two groups of children: the experimental group whose rooms in the first grade were homogeneous. allowing the CA difference of between 2 and 3 months within a room, and the control group whose rooms in the first and subsequent grades were ordinary ones, allowing the CA difference of one year within a room. The grouping in both groups was the same in the second and third grades. The major findings of the study are as follows: 1. In the control group positive correlations between CA and GPA are observed. This influence of the CA difference upon GPA tends to become less as the grade goes upward. A significant influence, however, is observed even in the third grade. 2. In both indices of the CA difference upon GPA, i. e. the coefficient of correlation between CA and GPA and the difference in means between the older and younger halves of children in each grade. the experimental group shows smaller values compared with those of the control group,though the differences are not significant in any grade. The differences in both indices between the two groups tend to become smaller as the grade goes upward and at the third grade the differences are practically null. In the first grade of the experimental group practically no correlation is observed between CA and GPA. This is what was expected from homogeneous grouping. It is not possible, however, to make any conclusive observation from the data of the present report as to the nature and permanency of the effect of the homogeneous grouping in the first grade upon the GPA in the subsequent grades. 3. The influence of the CA difference upon GPA is reflected approximately equally in both academic and nOD-academic subjects. The olny possible exception to this is that the correlation between CA and the grade point in physical education is extremely high, Spearman's rank order coefficient of correlation being .808, in the first grade of the control group.
Type Local :紀要論文
ISSN :0485-7801
Publisher :琉球大学教育学部
URI :http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/19310
Citation :研究集録 no.5 p.33 -47
Appears in Collections:No.5 (1961/12)

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