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No.59 (2012/12) >

Title :Forest Methods: Revised Japanese and English Translations of Sai On's Somayama Houshikichou(杣山法式帳) (Collected Provisions Related to Mountain Forests)
Authors :Nakama, Yuei
John, Micael Purves
Bixia, Chen
Authors alternative :仲間, 勇栄
パーヴェス, ジョン・マイケル
陳, 碧霞
Issue Date :Dec-2012
Abstract :The contents of‘Forest Methods' can be divided into three main sections: the classification of mountain forest terrains, the care and administration of forests and descriptions of different mountain forest types, with eleven articles out of the main 19 articles devoted to mountain forest terrain.‘Forest Methods' begins with a discussion of terrain analysis. It divides terrain into steep mountain slope and gentle mountain slope categories and discusses the merits and demerits of surrounding mountain forest conditions including the height differences and relative distance between mountains. The purpose of this is to outline the criteria necessary in order to assess the most appropriate locations for forest planting. The first main feature of‘Forest Methods' relates to the ideal configuration of terrain for the purpose of preserving the essential energy (qi) of the mountain forest, or‘sanqi'. The most important concept outlined therein is that of‘embraced protection' (hougo). In‘Forest Methods', embraced protection is described as“the condition in which surrounding mountains serve to prevent the loss of mountain forest qi". This ‘embraced protection' concept can still be utilized today in bringing about environmental improvements to rural and urban areas by developing techniques that preserve qi through strategic tree planting. Such techniques were applied in early-modern Ryukyu, including roads lined with Ryukyu Pine trees, forested areas of embraced protection strategically planted to surround a village, trees strategically planted to provide embraced protection along stretches of coastline and Fukugi trees strategically planted to surround individual residences. The second main feature of‘Forest Methods' is an emphasis on the importance of preserving qi from the perspective of forest care and maintenance.‘Forest Methods' stresses that if trees are cut down or burned down at the most critical place in the forest, known as the‘gate of embraced protection', where the tips of the ridge-lines of the embraced protection mountains overlap just like the collar of a shirt overlaps when fixed, wind can enter through such man-made gaps and ultimately this will lead to the ruin of the forest. In order to preserve this vital mountain forest qi,‘Forest Methods' instructs that thorough maintenance work for the protection of the forest be focused on the gate of embraced protection. The third main feature of‘Forest Methods' is the use of illustrations for the purpose of teaching the reader how to understand different types of mountain forests. The illustrations are of an Itajii(castanopsis sieboldii)forest in the northern part of Okinawa Island. They show forests at progressive stages from the initial growth phase through to maturity and also the impact of human involvement by showing the condition of forests in the aftermath of tree felling. Commentary is provided alongside each illustration.
Type Local :紀要論文
ISSN :0370-4246
Publisher :琉球大学農学部
URI :http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/26477
Citation :琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus no.59 p.1 -12
Appears in Collections:No.59 (2012/12)

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