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The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus >
No.60 (2013/12) >

 
Title :『林政八書』の「山奉行所規摸帳」:その和文・英訳と内容分析
Title alternative :Modern Japanese & English Translations and Content Analysis of 'The Scope of the Bureau of Forest Administration' from the 'Eight Volumes on Forest Administration.'
Authors :Nakama, Yuei
John, Michael Purves
Bixia, Chen
Authors alternative :仲間, 勇栄
パーヴェス, ジョン・マイケル
陳, 碧霞
Issue Date :27-Dec-2013
Abstract :Yamabugyousho Kimocho covers areas such as systems, techniques and punishments related to somayama,ship-building and silviculture. What follows is a list of a number of new insights extracted from the contents of the document.First, at the magiri and village level in addition to both the souyamaatai and yamaatai who were officials involved in forest administration there were technical forest specialists such as the yamashi, yamakounin and kobikinin. The yamashi was a technician in the field who assessed the measurements of trees intended for use prior to them being cut down. Yamakounin were technicians who carried out tree cutting, processing and nurturing duties. Y amakounin possessed knowledge about methods of caring for forests and they were positioned so as to play a critical role in the protection of (somayama) government-administered forests. Kobikinin are forest technicians who use saws to cut up trees. The most common method of shaving off and cutting up large trees prior to the influx of kobikinin was with an axe. The problem with the axe method was that too much wood was wasted. The Royal Government provided guidance on the use of saws to cut up wood and thereafter the number of kobikinin increased. Second, the administration of useful trees grown in places such as the somayama, satoyama (forests that could be freely used by local people for their lumber needs) and local village communities was carried out in accordance with the Royal Government's 'Goyoubokuchou'(Register of Government-Use Trees). The Goyoubokuchou was a set of documents that recorded a range of details about the kind of trees required by the government for public purposes. Details included tree types, locations of specific tree types and tree trunk measurements.Even today in forest administration a 'Shinrinbo' (Forest Register) is used that describes forest types, location and accumulation. According to the Goyoubokuchou there were 21 types of tree (recorded in the 'Yamabugyousho Kujichou' [Operational Affairs of the Forest Administration Bureau]) forbidden from being cut down and this was strictly administered.
Third, in order to assure the lumber resources required for Chinese-style vessels used to cross to and from China the number of private boats and ships throughout the Ryukyu Kingdom were surveyed and certification marks branded on all of them for more effective administration. The administration of boat and ship-related timber was carried out by forest officials in terms of tree cutting and also by oversight officials stationed at each port to monitor boat and ship construction in accordance with 'tegata' (details on the vessel design).'Kurifune' were a type of log or dugout canoe made by hollowing out large trees but were very wasteful in terms of some of the most important lumber to the kingdom. As such, after the issuance of the Yamabugyousho Kimocho instructions were given to replace the kurifune with 'hagifune,' a type of boat made by assembling sawn planks of wood. Fourth relates to the sentences imposed on people who cut down trees designated as for government-use without permission. There are numerous punitive regulations for people who do things like illegally reclaim land for cultivation purposes from government-administered forests. Depending on the type of violation there were a few rather harsh punishments, such as exile for life. Most of the punishments were fines, with half of the fine typically going to the whistle-blower(s) and the other half allocated to afforestation costs. Fifth, in order to improve the administration of somayama in a state of devastation a new reform of the systems and organizational structure was carried out. For example, up to that point the administration of somayama had been carried out by several magiri like the 'moyaiyama' (communal use forests), but after the issuance of the Yamabugyousho Kimocho a specific administrative area of forest was attached to one single magiri unit. The procurement of government-use timber was then carried out by each individual magiri unit. The magiri units of forest administration were later subdivided so that the administration was handled at the village level. It gradually became clear that any given area of forest was being administered by each village communally. Furthermore, the forest management system was strengthened with new yamabugyou and hissha officials dispatched to the Kunigami and Nakagami regions in a shake up of the organizational structure.
この「山奉行所規模帳」には、杣山、造船、育林などに関わる制度、技術、罰則などが記されているが、その内容から新たな知見 を抜き出して列記すれば、以下のとおりである。1つは、間切や村レベルで、総山当や山当の林務行政職員の他に、山師、山工人、木引人などの林業技術者が存在していたことである。山師は山で意図する寸法が取れる木を鑑定する技術者である。山工人は伐木、加工、保育作業などを行う技術者である。この山工人は山の手入れ方法に関する知識もち、杣山の保全に重要な役割を果たす技術者として位置づけられている。木引人は鋸を使って木を製材する技術者のことである。これまで斧を使って大木を削り取って製材する方法が行われていた。これでは木の浪費になるので、木引人を増やして、鋸で製材するように王府は指導している。2つは、御用木帳によって、杣山、里山、村落などに生育する有用樹木を管理していたことである。この御用木帳には、木の所在地、木の種類、幹回り、などが記載されていた。今日の林務行政で使われている「森林簿J(森林タイプ、蓄積量、場所などが記載)に類似する。御法度木として21種類の木(「山奉行所公事帳」1751に記載)が御用木帳に登録され、厳しく管理されていた。3つは、中国に渡る唐船の用材を確保するために、琉球王国内の民間の船の数を調べ、これらに焼印(認証印)を押して徹底的に管理していたことである。これらの船用材の管理は、伐採木に関しては山役人、船の建造に関しては、手形(船の設計情報)をもとに各港に常駐する担当役人が行っていた。大木をくり抜いて作るクリ舟は、木の浪費になるとして、この規模帳以後、製材した板材を張り合わせて作るハギ舟を作るよう指導している。4つは、御用木を許可なく伐採した者、杣山を焼き明けたりした者などに関する罰則規定が、数多く記されていることである。違反行為の内容によっては、一生の流刑に処すなど、かなり厳しい掟が設けられている。罰則のほとんどが罰金刑になっていて、罰金の半分は告発者に渡し、残りの半分は造林費用に当てるシステムになっている。5つは、荒廃した杣山の管理を徹底するために、制度や組織体制の改革を新たに行っていることである。たとえば、これまで杣山の管理は数間切が模合山(共同利用地)のように考えて利用してきたが、この規模帳以後、1箇所の間切単位に山の管理区域を定めて、御用木の調達も1間切単位で行われるようになっている。この間切単位の杣山の区域は、その後、さらに村ごとに細区分され、各村が共同で管理する山の所在が明確にされていく。さらにこれらの管理体制を強化するため、国頭地方や中頭地方に山奉行や筆者の役職を新設し、山の管理の組織体制の強化を図っているのである。
Type Local :紀要論文
ISSN :0370-4246
Publisher :琉球大学農学部
URI :http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/28954
Citation :琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus no.60 p.45 -58
Appears in Collections:No.60 (2013/12)

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