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No.61 (2014/12) >

 
Title :『林政八書』中の「杣山法式仕次」 : その和訳・英訳と内容分析
Title alternative :Modern Japanese & English Translations and Content Analysis of ‘Additional Forest Methods [Somayama Houshikichou Shitsugi]’ from the ‘Eight Volumes on Forest Administration.'
Authors :仲間, 勇栄
Purves, John Michael
Chen, Bixia
Authors alternative :Nakama, Yuei
パーヴェス, ジョン・マイケル
陳, 碧霞
チン, ビーシャ
Issue Date :27-Dec-2014
Abstract :‘Somayama Houshikichou Shitsugi [Additional Forest Methods]’ was promulgated in 1747 as a supplementary volume to ‘Somayama Houshikichou [Forest Methods]’ which had been published a decade earlier in 1737. The contents once again affirm principles outlined in the earlier ‘Somayama Houshikichou’ but also include additional statutes on new matters. ‘Somayama Houshikichou’ consisted of three sections: ‘Aspects of Forest Terrain,’ ‘The Growth and Management of Forests’ and ‘Understanding Types of Forest.’ Out of a total of 28 articles, 11 covered geomorphic analysis of forest terrain, 8 articles dealt with the growth and management of forests and 9 articles looked at how to judge types of forests by appearance from afar. ‘Somayama Houshikichou Shitsugi,’ in contrast, contains 18 articles, 11 of which contain provisions related to forest growth and management, 5 articles deal with building materials required for ships and the main palace at Shuri Gusuku and 2 articles focus on the use of community or village forests, called ‘sanya’ or ‘satoyama.’ One of the most noticeable features of ‘Somayama Houshikichou Shitsugi’ was the set of improvement measures for barren land areas within community forests. Barren areas within community forest that lay abandoned were called ‘nigatsuchi’ and ‘sabitsuchi.’ According to soil specialists, these barren areas did not contain high-salinity soils. Because the pH value of the ‘nigatsuchi’ and ‘sabitsuchi’ soil in these areas was between 2-3 very little could grow there. What follows below are methods for improving barren land areas described within ‘Somayama Houshikichou Shitsugi.’ In locations with ‘nigatsuchi’ and ‘sabitsuchi’ soil types it is possible to improve the soil quality so that crops can be grown. Holes are dug at a depth of 42 centimeters, 21 centimeters under the topsoil on the upper layer and 21 centimeters above the subsoil on the lower level. Leave this area exposed to tlle elements for one year and then mix together the soil from the upper and lower levels. This method is being taught to farmers in Okinawa Prefecture even today so as to avoid damage to crops as a result of repeated cultivation. A second feature of ‘Somayama Houshikichou Shitsugi’ is the use of so-called ‘kuimishiki’ community forest areas for food cultivation. These were also known as ‘kinawabata,’ ‘sanyabata,’ ‘yamabata’ or ‘akikaebata.’ In most cases these areas were in community forests in proximity to farming communities but such cultivation was also carried out within royal government-administered forest areas, depending on the region. For several years the cultivation of crops would be carried out within government forest areas but after that the area would return to government control for forest planting through a slash-and-burn method of afforestation. In terms of specifically community forest areas there are cases of land used for crop cultivation for several years but then turned over for forest planting but in most cases the areas remained as regular fields used for crop cultivation. This method of usage, under a joint utilization form, was administered by the village community and carried out under a formula by which responsibility was assigned to individual households. The cultivated product was primarily various types of potato. The use of community forests for crop cultivation seems to have been very important for food supply at the time because these were areas not subject to tax tribute payments and therefore no payment burden was placed on the local farmers.
この「杣山法式仕次」は1737年の「杣山法式帳」の補則として公布されたものであるが、その内容は「杣山法式帳」の規則の再度の確認と、新たな事項を追加した法令集からなっている。「杣山法式帳」は、杣山の地形の見方、杣山の保育・管理の仕方、山の林相の見方の3部構成から成る。法式帳の全28項目のうちの11項目は杣山の地形解析、8項目は杣山の保育・管理、9項目は山の林相の見方に当てられている。一方、「杣山法式仕次」は、全18項目の内、11項目が杣山の保育・管理、5項目が船や首里城の普請用材、2項目が山野の利用などに関する規定になっている。まず「杣山法式仕次」で目に付く特徴の1つは、山野内における痩せ瘠せ地の改良方法についてである。山野内に放棄された「苦土・澁土」という瘠せ地がある。土壌専門家の話によると、この瘠せ地は高塩性の土壌ではないかという。pH値が2~3の土壌というから、ほとんど作物は育たない。これの改良の仕方について、この法式仕次では、以下のようなことを、具体的に指示している。苦土・澁土の場所は、深さを約42cmに掘り起こし、上層の約21cmの表土を下に、また下層の掘り起こした約21cmの心土を上にして、1年間、風雨にさらした後、さらに上層・下層の土壌を混ぜ合わせれば、土質も改善され、農作物の収穫もできるようになる。このやり方は、今日でも、作物の連作障害を避けるために、沖縄県が農家に指導していることでもある。2つ目は喰実敷という山野の耕地利用である。きなわ畑、山野畑、山畠、明替畑などとも称される。集落近辺の山野で耕作されることが多いが、地域によっては、杣山内でも行われていた。杣山内では数年間、畑作を続け、その後、植林して王府に返還する焼畑造林の形態が主であった。山野の場合も、数年間、耕作地に利用し、その後、植林する事例もあるが、その多くは常畑化していた。その利用のあり方は共同利用形態で、村落共同体で管理し、各戸に割り当てる方式で行っていた。栽培作物は主に芋類であった。この山野の喰実敷利用は、無税地であったため、当時の農民にとって、土地の貢租負担もなく、食料補給の重要な場所になっていたようである。その他、この法式仕次では、抱護の保全、唐船や首里城の建築用材、山野の保育・管理などについて、「杣山法式帳」で既に述べられていることを、再度、強調する条例構成になっている。
Type Local :紀要論文
ISSN :0370-4246
Publisher :琉球大学農学部
URI :http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/31654
Citation :琉球大学農学部学術報告 = THE SCIENCE BULLETIN OF THE FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY OF THE RYUKYUS no.61 p.11 -22
Appears in Collections:No.61 (2014/12)

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