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No.50 (2003/12) >

 
Title :沖縄の伝統食文化である木灰ソバの歴史と製造に関する研究
Title alternative :Research on the History and Production of Lye-kneaded Wheat Noodle as Part of Okinawan Traditional Food Culture
Authors :仲間, 勇栄
Authors alternative :Nakama, Yuei
Issue Date :1-Dec-2003
Abstract :本論文では,沖縄の伝統的食文化の一つである木灰ソバの意義について,その歴史と製造の面から考察した。現在,木灰ソバは中国甘粛省蘭州,タイのチェンマイ,沖縄の三箇所で確認されている。琉球への伝来は,14世紀末の中国からの「久米三十六姓」の渡来以降説と,中国からの冊封使による来琉(1372)以降の説が有力と考えられる。この木灰ソバが一般庶民のポピュラーな食べ物となるのは,明治以降のことではないかとみられる。灰汁に使われる樹種は,戦前ではアカギ,イヌマキ,ガジュマル,モクマオウ,ゲッキツ,現在では,主にガジュマル,イジュ,イタジイ,モクマオウなどである。木灰ソバは天然の樹木の灰から灰汁を採り,それを小麦粉に練り込んでつくる。普通の沖縄ソバでは人工のかん水が使われる。天然の灰汁には,カリウムやナトリウムなどのミネラル成分の他に,微量成分が数多く含まれている。これらの無機成分は,人間の健康維持にとっても不可欠のものである。この天然の灰汁でソバを作るとき,pH値12~13,ボーメ度2~3程度が良好とされる。この天然の灰汁で作る木灰ソバは,味覚の多様性を養う健康食品として,後世に伝えていくべき価値ある麺食文化の一つである。
In this article, the author considers the meaning of lye-kneaded wheat noodles as part of Okinawan traditional food culture from the viewpoints of history and production. Currently, lye-kneaded wheat noodles have been found in three places; one is in Lanzhou, Gansu, China, another in Chiang Mai, Thailand and the other in Okinawa. Regarding their introduction to Ryukyu, there seem to be two main theories; one is based upon the arrival of the36 clans of Kumefrom China in the late 14^<th> century and the other upon the visit ofsapposhito Ryukyu from China (1372). It may be after the Meiji era that the lye-kneaded wheat noodles became popular among the ordinary people. The kinds of tree used for lye-making before World War II were Bischofia javanica, Podocarpus macrophyllus, Ficus microcarpa, Casuarina equisetifolia, and Murraya paniculata. At present, mainly Ficus microcarpa, Schima wallichii, Castanopsis sieboldii, and Casuarina equisetifolia are used. Lye-kneaded wheat noodles are prepared by kneading wheat flour with lye that is obtained from natural wood ashes. For ordinary Okinawa Soba, artificially carbonated water is used. In natural lye, other than major components such as potassium and sodium, many trace components are contained as well. These mineral elements are essential to maintain the health of human beings. Based upon experimental results, suitable pH levels and Baume degrees for soba-making with natural lye were approximately 12-13 and 2-3, respectively. Another look should be taken at the lye-kneaded wheat noodles made with natural lye as health food which fosters a variety of tastes and is part of food culture in noodles and valuable enough to be passed on to future generations.
Type Local :紀要論文
ISSN :0370-4246
Publisher :琉球大学農学部
URI :http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/3599
Citation :琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus no.50 p.85 -92
Appears in Collections:No.50 (2003/12)

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