HOME    About this site    mypage    Japanese    library    university    Feedback

University of the Ryukyus Repository >
Faculty of Agriculture >
Bulletin >
The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus >
No.48 (2001/12) >

 
Title :亜熱帯沖縄における天然林の資源植物学的研究 (VI) : 宮古島の資源植物について
Title alternative :Plant resources studies on the natural forest in subtropical Okinawa (VI) : Distribution of the economically important plant in Miyako Island
Authors :新本, 光孝
石垣, 長健
平田, 永二
新里, 孝和
安里, 練雄
Authors alternative :Aramoto, Mitsunori
Ishigaki, Choken
Hirata, Eiji
Shinzato, Takakazu
Asato, Isao
Issue Date :1-Dec-2001
Abstract :本研究は, 亜熱帯沖縄における天然林の資源植物学的研究の一環として, 宮古島を対象に森林植物を中心とした資源植物の分布および用途別の分類を行い, 今後の資源植物の収集・保存・増殖および開発・利用を進めていく上での基礎的な資料を得るために行ったものである。調査の結果は次のとおりである。1. 森林資源調査における出現樹種は28種, 樹種別の分布率はCasuarina equisetifoliaモクマオウ38%, Cinnamomum pseudo-pedunculatumヤブニッケイ17%, Pinus luchuensisリュウキュウマツ11%, Acacia confusaソウシジュ6%, Eurya emarginataハマヒサカキ5%, Pongamia Pinnataクロヨナ4%, Diospyros maritimaリュウキュウガキ3%, Hibiscus tiliaceusオオハマボウ3%, Melanolepis multiglandulosaヤンバルアカメガシワ3%の順であった。樹種構成は, 主要島嶼の沖縄島, 石垣島, 西表島に比べて少なく, 単調であった。2. 森林資源調査の推定誤差率は, 平均胸高直径16.4%, 平均樹高11.7%, ha当たり本数26.1%, ha当たり胸高断面積19.1%, ha当たり材積25.3%であった。平均胸高直径および平均樹高は, それぞれ11.0cm, 6.4mであった。ha当たりの本数, 胸高断面積および材積は, それぞれ2,077本, 19.4m^2,76.7m^3であった。3. 宮古島の分布植物は, 在来植物が131科, 405属, 603種で, 外来植物が25科, 64属, 81種であった。そのうち在来植物は広く海外の熱帯地域に分布する植物が120科, 360属, 518種, 国内に限定されて分布する植物が50科, 80属, 85種であった。4. 宮古島と周辺近隣地との在来植物の共通種は, 石垣島563種(93.4%), 西表島559種(92.7%), 沖縄島555種(92.0%)で, 宮古島の約93%の植物が近隣地域に分布している。5. すでに開発・利用されている経済植物は121種で, 全体20%, 未利用・未開発の未経済植物は482種で全体の約80%を占め, 未経済植物は経済植物の約4倍も豊富に自生している。
6. 経済植物は, I類, II類, III類の3グループに分類され, それぞれI類32科, 56属, 60種, II類22科, 25属26種, III類24科, 30属, 35種を構成した。7. 用途の民族植物学的分類は, I類とII類で, それぞれ17,7のカテゴリーに分類された。そのうち, I類の主なカテゴリーは用材26種, 薬用14種, 飼料9種, 食用9種, 肥料3種であった。8. 最近, 森林資源の新しい利用法として, 森林バイオマスの活用, 低利用・未利用広葉樹および林床植生の利用について検討が始められている。未利用植物の多い宮古島においても新しい活用・利用法の開発が望まれる。
Within the frame work of a series of plant resource studies on the natural forests in the subtropical Okinawa Islands, the present study was undertaken to investigate the distribution of resource plants (focusing primarily on the forest plants in Miyako Island), and to classify the plants by their application and use, with the goal of collecting basic data to be used in collection, preservation, cultivation, development and utilization of plant resources for the future. The following results were obtained. Twenty-eight plant species were confirmed in the forest inventory survey. The most frequent species found in the total forest area were distributed as follows : Casuarina equisetifolia 38%, Cinnamomum pseudo-pedunculatum 17%, Pinus luchuensis 11%, Acacia confusa 6%, Eurya emargionata 5%, Pongamia pinnata 4%, Diospyros maritima 3%, Hibiscus tiliaceus 3%, and Melanolepis multiglandulosa 3%. The number of tree species in Miyako Island was smaller than that on other majors islands constituting the Okinawa Islands (Okinawa Island, Ishigaki Island, Iriomote Island). Thus, the tree species were relatively mono tonous on Miyako Island. In this forest inventory survey, the sampling error is estimated to be 16.4% for the mean diameter at breast height, 11.7% for the mean tree height, 26.1% for the number of trees per hectare, 19.1% for the basal area per hectare, and 25.3% for the volume per hectare. The mean diameter at breast height was 11.0cm. The mean tree height was 6.4m. The number of trees per hectare was 2,077. The basal area per hectare was 19.4m^2 and the volume per hectare was 76.6m^3. In Miyako Island, 603 indigenous plant species, belonging to 405 genuses of 131 families, and 81 introduced plant species, belonging to 64 genuses of 25 families, were confirmed. Of the indigenous plants, 518 species (360 genuses of 120 families) are known to be dis tributed widely in foreign tropical areas, and 85 species (80 genuses of families) occur only in Japan. The indigenous species commonly found in Miyako Island and the neighboring islands were investigated. Of all species found on Miyako Island, 563 (93.4%) also occurred on Ishigaki Island, 559 (92.7%) on Iriomote Island and 555 (92.0%) on Okinawa Island. Thus, about 93% of the species found Miyako Island were also found in the neighboring island. Of all species found in Miyako Island, 121 (about 20%) are plants that have already been exploited, and 482 (about 80%) are unexploited plant. Thus the number of unexploited plant species was about 4 times that of the exploited ones on this island. The exploited plant were divided into three groups (I, II and III) according to their uses. Group I contained 60 species (56 genuses of 32 families), Group II 26 species (25 genuses of 22 families) and Group III 35 species (30 genuses, of 24 families). The plant were divided into Group I and II, according to their ethnobotanical classification. Group I and II were subdivided into 17 and 7 categories, respectively. The major categories in Group I were timber (26 species), medicine (14 species), forage (9 species), food (9 species), and fertilizers (3 species). In recent yeas, new ways of utilizing forest resources such as utilization of forest biomass, hitherto poorly utilized or unutilizedbroad-leaf tree and ground plant have been studied. It is desirable that new methods of making use of the previously unutilized plant abundantly found on this island be developed.
Type Local :紀要論文
ISSN :0370-4246
Publisher :琉球大学農学部
URI :http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/3658
Citation :琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus no.48 p.195 -203
Appears in Collections:No.48 (2001/12)

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
KJ00000161932.pdf540KbAdobe PDFView/Open