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Title :島嶼学ことはじめ(一) : 島の定義・アプローチ・分類
Title alternative :An Introduction to Nissology : Definitions, Approach and Taxonomy
Authors :嘉数, 啓
Authors alternative :Kakazu, Hiroshi
Issue Date :Apr-2014
Abstract :Nissology (island studies in Greek ) . which was originated in the first meeting of the International Small Island Studies Association (ISISA) held in Okinawa in 1994. centered on the theme of "island matters. islands matter." is a new field of scientific investigation. Nissology is "a study of islands on their own terms." Since the establishment of the ISISA. various island-related organizations. studies program and journals have emerged. including the Japan Society of Island Studies (JSIS ). Institute of Island Studies. Islands and Small States Institute, Global Islands Network. Island Culture Research Centre and Kagoshima University Research Center for the Pacific Islands. Island study is very much about the implications of permeable borders. The nature of smallness, remoteness and insularity also suggest marginality, being on the edge, being out of sight and so out of mind. situations which can expose the weakness of mainstream ideas. orthodoxies and received wisdoms. while fomenting alternatives to the status quo. Any dominant paradigm is supposedly the weakest at its periphery. Consequently an approach to island studies requires what Gunnar Myrdal called a "multi- or transdisciplinary approach" which is more complex and comprehensive than the conventional approach to scientific discovery. Although the International Convention on the Law of the Sea defines an island as a "naturally formed area of land. surrounded by water." the definition of an island is always elusive and relative. Therefore it must be defined according to the purpose of research and policy. The National Oceanic Atmospheric Adm inistration's (NOAA) satellite-originated Global Shoreline Database shows that there are 180.498 islands (all pieces of land greater than 0.1km^2) with a total island population of 550 million or 10% of the world's total population. Of all islands listed in the database. less than 5% are supposed to be inhabited. Although these islands occupy only 2% of the Earth's land surface area. they account for 22% of the U.N. seats. The general characteristics of islands are illusive and relative. For instance. the Japanese islands named Takara Jima (Treasure Island) and Akuseki To (Evil Stone Island) are located side by side. Their names demonstrate the commonly-held but contradictory images of islands as both paradise and hell. or confinement (prison) and openness (utopia). Unique sociopolitico-economic development problems will arise when the "island" is associated with its smallness. isolation and its location at international borders. Given the above caveat. the general characteristics. merits and demerits of small islands from the standpoints of socioeconomic development can be summarized. In this study, we focus on the taxonomy of islands based on various characteristics of the world islands such as the size and shape. distance to the mainland. shoreline index. population. income. fauna and flora. endemic species. governance. world heritages and languages.
Type Local :雑誌掲載論文
ISSN :1884-7013
Publisher :日本島嶼学会(JSIS)
URI :http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/36615
Citation :島嶼研究 = The journal of Island studies no.15 p.95 -114
Appears in Collections:Peer-reviewed Journal Articles (Faculty of Law and Letters)

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