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No.44 (1997/12) >

 
Title :都市住宅地域の環境緑化モデルに関する研究 : 沖縄県浦添市浦西団地を事例にして
Title alternative :A Research Study on the Model of the Environmental Reforestation of the Urban Residential Areas on Okinawa
Authors :仲間, 勇栄
Authors alternative :Nakama, Yuei
Issue Date :1-Dec-1997
Abstract :地域環境緑化の基本ファクターは, その地域の植生遷移(サクセッション)や極相(クライマックス)と, その地域社会の伝統的な森の文化である。これらの要素を組み合わせて, もともとその地域にあった原植生・原風景の緑環境を復元する。この帰納的緑の街づくりの考え方にもとづいて, 浦西団地を事例に, 都市住宅地域の環境緑化(緑のマスタープラン)モデルを, 次のようなプロセスで描いて見た。団地周辺の植生のクライマックスは, タブノキの林である。大きくは照葉樹林域とみなしてもいい。この照葉樹林の構成樹種の一つであるクスノキ科(タブノキ, クスノキ, ニッケイなど)の植物を, 団地緑化の基本樹種として選び出す。周辺の歴史・文化の調査で, 小地名やウタキの存在が確認されたので, これらを緑づくりのプランのなかに生かす。「ふるさとの森づくり」では, 古代琉球の叙事詩「おもろそうし」のなかの植物を取り入れ, 地域の森の文化の意味づけを行なう。さらに, これらの要素を組み合わせて, 近世琉球の風水思想に見られる集落立地の考え方にもとづいて, 団地の風水的意味づけと, 全体の植樹のグランドデザインを作成する。まとめて言えば, このプロセスは地域の自然や歴史や文化のポテンシャルを可能な限り引き出して, それらに緑の自己主張をさせようとした試みでもある。
There is a tendency in the environmental reforestation of areas such as roadsides, residential land, and parks, currently carried out in Okinawas' cities, to accomplish reforestation through the application of a uniformed technique. The result is not at all attractive. Not much thought appears to be given as to the location, position or species of trees to be utilized. Consequently foreign or non native trees are frequently planted without consideration given to possible differences in soil, and the adaptability to local soil conditions. This practice often results in poor tree growth and it's eventual demise. In planting a tree, questions such as the tree characteristics, location, and why plant it, are among several factors which must be evaluated. Factors such as nature, history and culture are rarely considered. Upon examination of these factors, the obvious question of what is the proper way or method to effect environmental reforestation becomes apparent. Research must be conducted to determine what tree species were originaly growing in these areas to be reforested. Effective, successful environmetal tree planting cannot be accomplished ignoring nature, histroy and the culture of the area. Considering this, how should environmental tree planting at the city residential area level of Okinawa be undertaken? This is a subject that this research examines. The completion of this research will enable us to prepare a blueprint of environmental tree planting, focusing on one model plan, adapting it to the location to be reforested. There are two basic factors in environmental tree planting. One is vegetation succession and climax of the area, the other is traditional forest culture of the community. Put these elements together, re-construct the original green vegetation environment and scenery, will result in what is termed inductive green creation. Following this train of thought, I put these elements together and try to picture an environmental tree planting model of a city residential area by the process that follows. As the investigative object area, I selected Uranishi residential site, Urasoe-city, Okinawa pref., Japan. This residential area numbers 416 households, with a population of approximately 1,600. This housing complex is located on the east edge of Urasoe city. This area was selected because it is well planned with wide streets and sidewalks, green areas and carefully planned residential land. This housing complex has attracted considerable attention as a model residential area. The vegetation climax of the city residential outskirts we are going to reforest, are wooded areas of Machilus thunbergii (laurel). One of the principal trees of a laurel forest is Lauraceae. This plant has been selected as the basic tree for residential area planting. Through investigation of the history and culture of houses on the outskirts of Nishihara, the name, location and existence of a Utaki (holy forest, where Okinawan people prayed to their ancestoral god) was confirmed. This concept was be kept alive in the green creation plan. Included in this plan, were trees described in "Omorosoushi", an epic of ancient Ryukyus. The plan also incorporates an ancient Chinese concept of village planning based on geographical convenience called "huN-si". This included factors such as climate, topography and geography. This concept was introduced from China at the end of the 14th century and became the common practice of ground design and tree placement and planting in residential areas. In summation, This process draws from native flora, history, and culture of the area as much as possible, and is the trial that will result in a natural, yet assisted self-assertion of the traditional green area vegetation.
Type Local :紀要論文
ISSN :0370-4246
Publisher :琉球大学農学部
URI :http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/3712
Citation :琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus no.44 p.239 -253
Appears in Collections:No.44 (1997/12)

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