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No.40 (1993/12) >

 
Title :西表島における牧草地の植生と採食植物(附属演習林)
Title alternative :The grazing plants and vegetation on the range and field in Iriomote Island, Ryukyus (Forestry Experiment Station)
Authors :新里, 孝和
新本, 光孝
山盛, 直
Authors alternative :Shinzato, Takakazu
Aramoto, Mitsunori
Yamamori, Naosi
Issue Date :1-Dec-1993
Abstract :熱帯,亜熱帯性資源植物の収集,保存に関する研究の一環として,西表島における原野の植生と牛の採食する植物を調査した。放牧地の植生は,チガヤ,ハイキビ,オガサワラスズメノヒエ,フタシベネズミノオなどが全域の共通種として出現し,やや湿地性の植物と乾燥地性の植物とで植生が異なるところがみられた。放牧地では比較的短期間で植生遷移が進むようで,造成後3年くらいで低木性のアダン,バンジロウ,アカメガシワ,オオバギなどが侵入し,チガヤと2段に層化する。採草地でも除草作業を実行していないところで造成後早い時期に侵入種がみられた。植生の模式図が考えられ,チガヤ草原は採食型群落,非採食型群落,低採食型群落に区分できる。チガヤ草原は放置するとかん木林へと遷移する。低採食性のフタシベネズミノオはとくに出穂時に牛の嗜好性が低下するようで,分散度が早い。採食植物は採食性,非(未)採食性,不明種を含めて,総計163種が記録された。採食植物の最も多い科は,イネ科の25種で,以下キク科,マメ科,アオイ科,カヤツリグサ科,トウダイグサ科の順となる。採食植物は採食の仕方によって,3タイプに区分され,さらに採食痕でいくつかに細分された。
The vegetation and grazing plants for cattle on the range and the field were investigated in six locations of Iriomote island as part of the study of the collection and preservation of tropical and subtropical economically important plants. Imperata cylindrica Beauv. var. major C. E. Hubb., Panicum repens L., Paspalum conjugatum Berg, and Sporobolus diander Beauv. which are common species in all locations grow on Iriomote Island, but different species appear in the moist and dry areas. In the pasture, the planting succession seems to proceed in a short time because the shrubs of Pandanus odratissimus L. f., Psidium guajava L., Mallotus japonicus Muell. -Arg., Macaranga tanarius Muell. -Arg. and others have carried out an invasion uppon the pasture about three years after the grass grows and makes two layers between these plants and Imperata cylindrica Beaub. var. major C. E. Hubb. On the meadow which does not weed, some invader species also appear soon after the herbage grows. The grassland Imperata cylindrica Beauv. var. major C. E. Hubb. is divided into three types : grazing plant community, non-grazing plant community and low grazing plant community. If left uncared for, it changes to shrub. Sporobolus diander Beauv. is low grazing plant type and palatability by the cattle especially decreases when plants begin to ear. The grazing plants totalled 163 species, inclusive of grazing species, non-grazing species and unclear species. The grazing plants of Grameae were twenty-five species which were the most of species in many families. Following were Compositae. Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae and others respectively. By way of grazing, the grazing plant was classified into three types and was divided into smaller categories by grazing traces (Fig. 3).
Type Local :紀要論文
ISSN :0370-4246
Publisher :琉球大学農学部
URI :http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/3801
Citation :琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus no.40 p.153 -165
Appears in Collections:No.40 (1993/12)

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