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No.39 (1992/12) >

 
Title :近世琉球における林野入会の諸形態 : 羽地間切杣山巡回日誌の分析(生物生産学科)
Title alternative :A Historical Study on the Utilization of the Common Farm Forest during the Ryukyu Dynasty Era (Department of Bioproduction)
Authors :仲間, 勇栄
Authors alternative :Nakama, Yuei
Issue Date :1-Dec-1992
Abstract :杣山の利用形態には,(1)一村所持利用形態,(2)一村所持一村構利用形態,(3)数村所持利用形態,(4)一村所持数村模合利用形態,(5)一村所持数村構利用形態,の五つのタイプがある。18世紀中葉の王府の林政改革を境目にして,林野の利用形態は,古琉球的林野利用である模合利用から,近世的林野利用である一村所持・構利用に変化していくが,それは約言すれば,林野の管理利用システムの近世的再編過程であった。構利用とは,ある村所持の山に,他村が御用木を仕立てて管理している状態のことである。これには一村構利用と数村構利用の二つがある。この場合,山の所持村と構利用村とは一致せず,分離した状態になっており,この点が,模合利用と著しく異なる。この構利用は,各村々の林野利用のアンバランスを調整する一つの方法として,元文検地後に新たに作られたシステムである。模合利用とは,ある村所持の山に数村が共同で樹木を仕立てることである。この場合,山の所持村は模合利用村の中に含まれる。この共同植林地は,分割されて一村構・数村構持ちになり,あるいは分割されずに,数村模合持ちのかたちになる。造林樹種で最も多いのは松で,次いで樫木,桐木,杉木,杉,などとなっている。構・模合利用地に植えられる樹種で,最も多いのは樫木で,その他,松,桐木,杉木,杉,などが植えられている。以上が,これまでの分折結果から,明らかになった主要な点である。
The objective of this study is to clarify the forest land utilization methods practiced by the various villages, during the Ryukyu dynasty, through analyzing an old document (1849) discovered in Haneji village of northern Okinawa. This document describes five different types of forest land utilization. Type A : Forest lands which are owned by a village, and utilized solely by that village. Type B : Forest lands which owned by a village, and utilized by an other village. Type C : Forest lands which are owned by a village, and utilized by several other villages. Type D : Forest lands which are owned by a village, and utilized jointly with other villages. Type E : Forest lands which are jointly owned by several villages, and jointly utilized by these owning villages. The forest administration and the peasant's utilization of the forest lands were reformed during the period 1730 to 1750 of the Ryukyu dynasty era. The reforms appear to be precipitated exhaustion of forest resources which were suppling timber primarily for various types of public use, which included the reconstruction of the royal palace (Shuri castle) every 20 years. The Ryukyu dynasty regarded Types D and E under the old forest land use system, as the cause of forest denudation. Responsibility for protecting the forest land could not be fixed because of the multiple ownership and utilization. Therefore, the Ryukyu dynasty officials had deemed it necessary to reorganize the forest policy, by dividing forest land and assigning specific tracts to specific villages. As a result of the reform, Type A through C increased in number through the progressive assimilation of foresst Type D and E. The reform also resulted in reafforestation measures through the directed planting of specific species, and may therefore be properly classified as the first official conservation act in the history of the Ryukyus and possibly Japan. The planted species included pinus luchuensis Mayr, Podocarpus macrophyllus D. Don, Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook, and Vernicia fordii Airy Shaw.
Type Local :紀要論文
ISSN :0370-4246
Publisher :琉球大学農学部
URI :http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/3809
Citation :琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus no.39 p.47 -63
Appears in Collections:No.39 (1992/12)

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