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No.27 (1980/11) >

 
Title :戦前期の沖縄県における薪木の流通構造について(林学科)
Title alternative :On the distribution system of firewood on Okinawa Prefecture before World War II (Department of Forestry)
Authors :仲間, 勇栄
篠原, 武夫
Authors alternative :Nakama, Yuei
Shinohara, Takeo
Issue Date :29-Nov-1980
Abstract :以上みてきた薪木流通機構のヒエラルヒーは, 次のように図式化できる。すなわち, 敷場持⇾船持⇾町屋⇾生産者農民という支配関係であり, 共同店も同様に敷場持に直結していた。ここで流通支配体制の頂点に位置しているのは敷場持であり, この敷場持が絶対的優位性を確保できる根拠は, 海上輸送手段の所有と支配であり, またこのことが決定的な意味をもつが, 消費地においてストック機能を有していたことである。各港での敷場持の存在は, 他の流通の担い手の越境販売を阻止し, 必ず敷場を経由しなければならないために, 薪木の購入, 販売共に敷場持に有利に展開していた。このように敷場持が流通の支配体制を維持できるのは, 陸上交通の未発達で海上運送に頼らなければならないことに原因があって, したがってこの流通体制は陸上交通の発達に伴い, 漸次崩壊していく運命を内包していたのである。この敷場支配体制は, 第二次大戦後の一時期(1950年代の後半頃)まで続いていたのであるが, 陸上交通機関の発達で消滅し, また薪木需要の減少, すなわち, 化学系燃料の進出等で完全に崩壊し, その結果, 薪木流通支配体制の中で財を築いた敷場持は, 今日の製材業, 材木商へと質的転換を遂げていった。その転換期は1950年代の後半頃, すなわち, 杉材市場, 島産材市場が漸次崩壊し, 外材市場へ移行しつゝあった時期にあたる。
In theOkinawa-ProducedLumber Market of the prewar period, firewood was not only the main forest product but was also the object of buying and selling as a cash crop among the farmers. Because of the limited availability of cultivated and the existence of large forested areas particularly in the north of mainland Okinawa, farmers supported themselves mainly by producing and selling firewood to the various dealers. Throughout the process of firewood production and its distribution, this study will analyze the functional mechanisms involved and the role of commercial capital so that we can grasp the special character of the Okinawa forest products market. A summary of this study follows : Firewood, charcoal, logs, etc., from north mainland Okinawa are moved to the southern area of mainland Okinawa by small costal junk. (refer to fig. 1) The firewood carriers consist of : (a) farmers-direct producer, (b) grocers-also land owner in the village, selling food to farmer, and buying firewood from farmer, (c) cooperative stores-owned and operated by the village residents with the same function as the grocers described above, (d) costal junk owners-carring firewood from the village grocery store to the merchant, (e) firewood and charcoal merchants-living near the port, having a site where firewood can be stocked, (there are two types of this kind of merchant, one possessing only a stock site, and the othe owning both a stock site and a costal junk), (f) non-powered canoe owners-utilized in the loading and unloading of the junks which were unable to dock due to the shallow draft, (g) cart owners-the delivery business, transporting firewood to the consumers. Firewood produced in the villages flowed from the farmer to the grocer and cooperative store, then passed to the costal junk owner, then to the firewood and charcoal merchant, finally to the consumer. The heirarchy of the firewood distribution system begins with the farmer and progresses up through the grocer or cooperative store, costal junk owner, canoe owner and the charcoal-firewood merchant, with the charcoal-firewood merchant ruling the firewood distribution system. The merchants controled the firewood distribution system inasmuch as they usually owned or controled the sea transportation apparatus in addition to the terminal storage and resale areas. The existence of the merchants' operations on the seashore enabled them to prevent access and therefore direct sales from the grocers, cooperative stores, or independent junk owners to the consumers. This sutuation essentially resulted in a monopoly. So long as the merchants controlled the seashore stockage-operational areas, buying and selling of firewood developed profitably for the merchants. This situation endured becasue of the underdevelopement of a land transportation system. With the construction of roads and the developement of land transportation, this firewood economic structure was easily broken down.
Type Local :紀要論文
ISSN :0370-4246
Publisher :琉球大学農学部
URI :http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/4116
Citation :琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus no.27 p.355 -367
Appears in Collections:No.27 (1980/11)

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