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No.15 (1968/10) >

 
Title :沖縄における甘蔗作経済の研究(農学科)
Title alternative :Studies on farm economy of sugar-cane cropping in Okinawa (Department of Agriculture)
Authors :池原, 真一
Authors alternative :Ikehara, Shinichi
Issue Date :1-Oct-1968
Abstract :1) It is obscure when sugarcane was introdnced to Okinawa. But it is said that sugar manufacturing practices were brought by Shinjo Gima in 1623. During the period of the feudal kingdom, the sugar industry played an important role for tributes to Satsuma Clan, for financial resource of the Ryukyu Kingdom, and for the economy of the sugarcane producers. 2) In those days, Satsuma Clan had gained enormous profits from the sugar industry of the Ryukyus and the Amami Islands. The clan controlled the production acreage of sugarcane in the Ryukyus for not reducing the clan's profit, as the unit price of sugar might have been reduced if sugar production were increased. Therefore, the farmers could not raise sugarcane freely in spite of a profitable crop. 3) The Meiji Era was revolutional period for sugarcane compressors, wooden or stone compressors were replaced by iron products. At the end of the period, motive power compressors appeared. Then, lectures were held for improving black sugar. In the 21st year of Meiji the limitation of sugar-cane planting acreage was released. And the sugar industry developed year by year. 4) During the period of Taisho, a sugar manufacturing factory with a capacity of 400 tons per day was established at Kadena, and factories of more than 200 tons were established at Tomigusuku, Nishihara, and Takamine. And famers were encouraged to raise sugar-cane. 5) During the former period of Taisho (before the end of the World War II), a productive strain of POJ which have a thick stem had beeing adopted by general sugar-cane producers. Therefore, the total sugar-cane and sugar production had rapidly increased and exports of sugar to other prefectures increased year by year. 6) In discussing the economics of the sugar industry, the author reviewed the studies of the production cost of sugar-cane in the later period of Meiji. It is considered to be good that studies were based on soil fertiltly-deviding farms into high, medium, and low fertility groups. But it may be unsatisfactory that the rent and interest were not counted. In reviewing the comparison between the unit piece of 100 kin of black sugar and the production costs, before the sugar consumption tax law took effect in the 34th year of Meiji, the former was greater than the enforcement of the tax, the profits of farmers decreased due to the addition of the tax to the production cost. In the 37th year of Meiji, farmers suffered a loss of \ 2.37 per 100 kin of sugar. 7) In the 7th and 8th years of Taisho, after the World War I, the unit price of sugar rose and the farmers gained great profits. But after the 10th year, it dropped to a point where it could not meet the production cost. On the other hand, sugar exporters went bankrupt, bank failures occured, and the Okinawa economy suffered from a great confusion for a time. The prefectural authorities made efforts to relieve the situation, by petitioning to the Japanese Government to exempt or reduce the consumption taxes or to provide appreciable amount of financial aid. But they said that the expected fruitfulness was not proved. 8) In the former period of Showa due to the adoptation of POJ strains, thick-stem variety, it became possible to plant sugar-cane in summer and spring. In studying the production costs, investigations were made on summer, and spring plantings, old-stamp sprouting, and native variety culture separately. It is considered to be a great progress that soil textures were put into consideration, that comparisons were made on the profits by the sugar-cane and other crop productions, and by rotations with various crops.
Type Local :紀要論文
ISSN :0370-4246
Publisher :琉球大学農学部
URI :http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/4564
Citation :琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus no.15 p.1 -164
Appears in Collections:No.15 (1968/10)

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