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No.14 (1967/10) >

 
Title :地下自動給水法液肥施用によるの砂栽培 : I 山東菜に対する肥料濃度の影響(農学科)
Title alternative :Sand culture with automatic irrigation by capillary rise of liquid fertillizer : I. Effects of concentrations of fertilizer on chinese cabbage (Department of Agriculture)
Authors :友寄, 長重
Authors alternative :Tomoyose, Choju
Issue Date :1-Oct-1967
Abstract :毛細管現象により液肥を砂床に地下自動供給する方法により山東菜に対する液肥の濃度試験を行なった。対象区として砂床と土床に地上灌水(液肥)する区を設けた。液肥は尿素, 過燐酸石灰, 塩化加里を窒素, 燐酸, 加里が12-5-7になるように配合したものを稀しやくして用いた。地下自動給水区は4区設け, 液肥の濃度は200倍, 400倍, 800倍, 1600倍区にした。地上灌水区は砂区, 土区とも200倍液を月, 水, 金曜日に1平方米当たり1lの割合いで灌注し, 火, 木, 土曜日には同量の水をかけた。1966年11月26日に播種し, 1967年1月20日に測定した。地下自動給水区の液肥がなくなった12月10日と21日に50lづつ液肥を入れた。土区では生育の途中で害虫が多く発生し測定できなかった。砂床地上灌水区は, 試験期間中降雨が多かったため, 地下自動給水の200,400,800倍区に劣っていた。地下自動給水区では生育の中途までは400倍区がよかったが, 結果は200倍区が成績は最もよかった。200倍区のT/R率が極めて高く, 十分の水と肥料が供給されれば, 根長, 根重は小さくても, 地上部に十分の養分を供給するものと考えられる。地下自動給水により液肥を砂床に供給し, そ菜, 花卉を栽培することは筆者が1966年9月から始めたものであり, 満足のゆくような施設と研究はできなかった。液肥を貯めるのに内径10∿15cmのビニールパイプを用い, その他いろいろ改良を加えれば, 多額を要さない施設費で栽培の省力化と増収にかなり設立つものと考えられる。
Extensive research have been made by Hukushima and Kishimoto on sand culture of horticultural crops. They proved that no minor elements and organic matter are necessary in sand culture, since air movement in sand is so good that roots actively absorb minor elements which are ingredients of sand. Therefore, blackish and small textural sand containing essential minor elements have to be used. The author devised to subirrigate sand beds by capillary rise of liquid fertilizer. Research was made on the effects of concentrations of liquid featilizer on the growth responses of Chinese cabbage, variety santosai, cultivated in sand beds subirrigated by capillary rise of liquid fertilizer (Fig. 1). For control, one sand bed and one soil bed were made for overhead irrigation. The depth of the sand beds were 10cm. The liquid fertilizer was made by mixing urea, superphophate, and potassium chloride so that nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash were in proportion of 12 : 5 : 7,and dissolving the mixture in water. Four beds with subirrigation were treated with 1/200,1/400,1/800,and 1/1600 time of 12-5-7,fifty litters having been put into vessels laid underneath the beds. The control sand bed and soil bed were overhead-irrigated with 1/200 time of 12-5-7 liquid fertilizer, 1 litter per square meter on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday having been used, and the same amount of water was applied on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. Seeds were sown on November 26,1966 and test crops were measured on January 20,1967. On December 10th and 21st, when the liquid fertilizer under the subirrigated beds had evapotranspirated, 50 litters were replaced. In the soil bed, the plants were damaged by insects and could not be measured for the results of growth. As the precipitation during the research period was high, the growth of plants in the sand bed with overhead irrigation was inferior to those with subirrigation except those with the lowest fertilizer concentration. Among the beds with subirrigation, one with 1/400 time of liquid fertilizer performed better than the others by the growing period, but the final result showed the superiority of 1/200 time of 12-5-7 liquid fertilizer. The plants in the bed with subirrigation with 1/200 time of 12-5-7 liquid fertilizer had very high T/R ratio, which can be considered that plants with sufficient water and nutrients grow well without extensive root system. The utilization of the device was started in October 1966,and therefore, satisfactory device and research were not made. Improvement of the device can be made by replacing vessels for liquid fertilizer with plastic pipes, plastic roofing with plastic sheets, and adjusting sizes of beds, pipes, sheets and others. It is considered that the device is useful for saving labor and improving harvest without expensive construction funds.
Type Local :紀要論文
ISSN :0370-4246
Publisher :琉球大学農学部
URI :http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/4576
Citation :琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus no.14 p.151 -155
Appears in Collections:No.14 (1967/10)

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