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|Title ||:||Epigenetic changes around the pX region and spontaneous HTLV-1 transcription are CTCF-independent|
|Authors ||:||Miura, Michi|
Bangham, Charles R.M.
|Issue Date ||:||11-Dec-2018 |
|Abstract ||:||Background: The human retrovirus HTLV-1 inserts the viral complementary DNA of 9 kb into the host genome. Both plus- and minus-strands of the provirus are transcribed, respectively from the 5′ and 3′ long terminal repeats (LTR). Plus-strand expression is rapid and intense once activated, whereas the minus-strand is transcribed at a lower, more constant level. To identify how HTLV-1 transcription is regulated, we investigated the epigenetic modifications associated with the onset of spontaneous plus-strand expression and the potential impact of the host factor CTCF.
Methods: Patient-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in vitro HTLV-1-infected T cell clones were examined. Cells were stained for the plus-strand-encoded viral protein Tax, and sorted into Tax+ and Tax– populations. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation were performed to identify epigenetic modifications in the provirus. Bisulfite-treated DNA fragments from the HTLV-1 LTRs were sequenced. Single-molecule RNA-FISH was performed, targeting HTLV-1 transcripts, for the estimation of transcription kinetics. The CRISPR/Cas9 technique was applied to alter the CTCF-binding site in the provirus, to test the impact of CTCF on the epigenetic modifications.
Results: Changes in the histone modifications H3K4me3, H3K9Ac and H3K27Ac were strongly correlated with plus-strand expression. DNA in the body of the provirus was largely methylated except for the pX and 3′ LTR regions, regardless of Tax expression. The plus-strand promoter was hypomethylated when Tax was expressed. Removal of CTCF had no discernible impact on the viral transcription or epigenetic modifications.
Conclusions: The histone modifications H3K4me3, H3K9Ac and H3K27Ac are highly dynamic in the HTLV-1 provirus: they show rapid change with the onset of Tax expression, and are reversible. The HTLV-1 provirus has an intrinsic pattern of epigenetic modifications that is independent of both the provirus insertion site and the chromatin architectural protein CTCF which binds to the HTLV-1 provirus.|
|Type Local ||:||雑誌掲載論文|
|Citation ||:||Wellcome Open Research Vol.3 |
|Appears in Collections||:||Peer-reviewed Journal Articles (Faculty of Medicine)|
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