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Title :日常的題材に対する大学生の批判的思考 -態度と能力の学年差と専攻差-
Title alternative :Critical Thinking of University Students in Reading Non-Academic Materials : Attitude and Ability Differences in Relation to Academic Level and Major
Authors :道田, 泰司
Authors alternative :Michita, Yasushi
Issue Date :30-Mar-2001
Abstract :本研究では,日常的な題材に対して大学生が,批判的思考能力や態度をどの程度示すのか,それが学年(1年・4年)や専攻(文系・理系)によってどのように異なるかを明らかにすることを目的とした。大学生80名に対して,前後論法という論理的に問題のある文章3題材を読ませ,その文章に対する意見を自由に出させることで批判的思考態度を測定した。その後で,「論理的問題点を指摘せよ」というヒントに対してさらに意見を求めることにより,批判的思考能力を測定した。分析の結果,全240の回答のうち,批判的思考能力の現れと考えられる意見は88回答(36.7%),その中で批判的思考が要求されていない場面でも批判的思考態度を発揮していたものは20回答(22.7%)と少なかった。一貫した学年差や専攻差は見られなかった。多くの学生は,情報の持つ論理よりも内容のもっともらしさや自分の持っている信念の観点から文章を読んでおり,この点を踏まえて批判的思考が育成されるべきであることが示唆された。
The purposes of the present study were to examine the extent to which university students show critical thinking abilities and attitudes in reading non-academic materials, and to explore the possible correlation with academic level (freshman vs. senior) and major (scientific vs. non-scientific). 80 university students read 3 materials containing fallacious before-and-after arguments, and were asked to provide their comments and/or opinions. The data were used to determine their critical thinking attitudes. The students then commented again on the same materials after being instructed to point out any logical problems with them ; the results were analyzed to infer their critical thinking abilities. The results showed that (1) 88 of the 240 answers (36.7%) were categorized as displaying critical thinking abilities ; (2) in the condition with no instruction to think critically, only a few (22.7%) of the 88 responses showed ciritical thinking attitudes; and (3) no consistent effects of academic level or major were discovered. The results suggest that the majority of the students did not read these non-academic materials from a logical point of view, but rather read them from a viewpoint of plausibility, or of what the students believed. These results should be considered by educators whose goal is to develop university students' critical thinking abilities and attitudes.
Type Local :雑誌掲載論文
ISSN :0021-5015
Publisher :日本教育心理学会
URI :http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/531
Citation :教育心理学研究 Vol.49 no.1 p.41 -49
Appears in Collections:Peer-reviewed Journal Articles (Faculty of Education)

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