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No.53 (2006/12) >

 
Title :水蒸気蒸留装置設計における考え方
Title alternative :Designing of steam distillation system for essential oils
Authors :川崎, 聖司
池間, 洋一郎
國吉, 和男
秋永, 孝義
Authors alternative :Kawasaki, Seiji
Ikema, Youitirou
Kuniyoshi, Kazuo
Akinaga, Takayoshi
Issue Date :Dec-2006
Abstract :Different processing methods are required to extract essential oils from different plants. Most oils are extracted using steam distillation, during which the plant tissues break down, the essential oils and water vapor are released, then collected and cooled. The volatile essential oil condenses, separates and is easily isolated. In this process the steam is prepared in a separate chamber and piped into the tank. This is especially good for plant materials with high boiling point oils. Essential oils can be extracted using solvents. Hydro-distillation is not suitable for various products like delicately odored oils. There are three main ways that this can be performed. Solvent extraction is used when the odorous properties of delicate flower and plant material would be altered or destroyed by steam or water distillation or when a plant, for instance rose absolute and jasmine contains very little oil, making steam or water distillation impractical. Solvent extraction produces a concrete which in turn is refined into an absolute. The solvent dissolves the plants constituents including essential oils, fatty acids and waxes. The essential oil is extracted from the other constituents with alcohol. The fatty acids and waxes are not alcohol soluble so they are left behind. A secondary distillation then removes the alcohol, leaving the absolute oil behind. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction uses carbon dioxide under extremely high pressure to extract essential oils. In the future, many botanicals that are not now available may possibly be obtained through carbon dioxide extraction. A fundamental study to design new types of extraction systems for essential oils and a trial steam distillation systems was made. After leaves of alpinia were harvested, steam distilled essential oils were analyzed. Heat transfer of the system were also discussed. Good extraction results and performance were observed with this apparatus. Comparing heat and mass transfer on the experiments, it can be seen that the convection coefficient of essential oils seemed to be applicable to that of the theory of chemical engineering and some improvement of designing was necessary.
Type Local :紀要論文
ISSN :0370-4246
Publisher :琉球大学農学部
URI :http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/571
Citation :琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus no.53 p.25 -30
Appears in Collections:No.53 (2006/12)

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